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In-depth investigation of the phase-noise behavior of injection-locked oscillators and analog frequency dividers is presented. An analytical formulation has been obtained, which allows a better understanding of the shape of the output phase-noise spectrum of these circuits. The simplicity of this formulation is also helpful for circuit design. Approximate expressions for the corner frequencies of the spectrum are determined, identifying the most influential magnitudes and deriving design criteria. In particular, a technique has been developed to shift the frequency of the first corner of the phase-noise spectrum, up to which the output phase noise follows the input one. The expressions for the corner frequencies can be introduced in either in-house or commercial harmonic-balance software, thus allowing an agile design, as no separate phase-noise analysis is required. The validity of the analytical techniques is verified with the conversion-matrix approach and with measurements using two field-effect-transistor-based circuits: a 4.9-GHz injection-locked oscillator and a frequency divider by 2 with 9.8-GHz input frequency.
Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:56 , Issue: 2 )
Date of Publication: Feb. 2008