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Advanced electronic manufacturing requires the 3-D inspection of very small surfaces like the solder bumps on wafers for direct die-to-die bonding. Yet the microscopic size and highly specular and textureless nature of the surfaces make the task difficult. It is also demanded that the size of the entire inspection system be small so as to minimize restraint on the operation of the various moving parts involved in the manufacturing process. In this paper, we describe a new 3-D reconstruction mechanism for the task. The mechanism is based upon the well-known concept of structured-light projection, but adapted to a new configuration that owns a particularly small system size and operates in a different manner. Unlike the traditional mechanisms which involve an array of light sources that occupy a rather extended physical space, the proposed mechanism consists of only a single light source plus a binary grating for projecting binary pattern. To allow the projection at each position of the inspected surface to vary and form distinct binary code, the binary grating is shifted in space. In every shift, a separate image of the illuminated surface is taken. With the use of pattern projection, and of discrete coding instead of analog coding in the projection, issues like texture-absence, image saturation, and image noise of the inspected surfaces are much lessened. Experimental results on a variety of objects are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of this mechanism.
Electronics Packaging Manufacturing, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:31 , Issue: 1 )
Date of Publication: Jan. 2008