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In the past several years, many scientific applications from various domains have taken advantage of e-science infrastructures that share storage or computational resources such as supercomputers, clusters or PC server farms across multiple organizations. Especially within e-science infrastructures driven by high-performance computing (HPC) such as DEISA, online visualization and computational steering (COVS) has become an important technique to save compute time on shared resources by dynamically steering the parameters of a parallel simulation. This paper argues that future supercomputers in the Petaflop/s performance range with up to 1 million CPUs will create an even stronger demand for seamless computational steering technologies. We discuss upcoming challenges for the development of scalable HPC applications and limits of future storage/IO technologies in the context of next generation e- science infrastructures and outline potential solutions.