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In this paper, we develop a microwave brightness model for a growing season of cotton (MB-Cotton) and evaluate it by comparing modeled brightness temperatures at C-band with ground-based observations during an extensive field experiment. Overall, the phases of the modeled TB matched well with those observed but the diurnal amplitudes were underestimated when observed soil and vegetation conditions were used as inputs. The model estimates matched better with the observations when it was linked with a Land Surface Process model. The non- scattering canopy assumption provided reasonable estimates even during the late season.