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It is well established that synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry can be used to perform surface elevation mapping and change detection. This paper gives a technical description and performance analysis of the system, interferometric data processing flow as well as experimental results of the airborne X-band InSAR system, developed by East China Research Institute of Electronics Engineering. The system operates in X-band range and is configured as a dual-antennae cross-track interferometric SAR with main parameters: 9.6 GHz operating frequency, 200 MHZ bandwidth, 1.7 m baseline, 1 mtimes1 m ground resolution, and excelled 2-5 m height accuracy in mountain area. In this paper, the airborne X-band single-pass InSAR system was analyzed in details from the height of ambiguity and coherence. Finally, the processing results of the airborne X-band InSAR were presented to testify the good performance of the system.