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Roundness measurement has been a crucial issue of quality control in industry. This study proposes a roundness measuring method that applies the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) for computing the maximum inscribed circle (MIC). We first conducted a design of experiment with five PSO models, in which the impact of inertia weight, maximum velocity and the number of particles on the performance of the particle swarm optimizer was analyzed. Then, a simple experiment of verification was conducted, and the experimental results reveal that the PSO-based method performed well in both accuracy and the efficiency.