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Fixation Precision in High-Speed Noncontact Eye-Gaze Tracking

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3 Author(s)
Hennessey, C. ; Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver ; Noureddin, B. ; Lawrence, P.

The precision of point-of-gaze (POG) estimation during a fixation is an important factor in determining the usability of a noncontact eye-gaze tracking system for real-time applications. The objective of this paper is to define and measure POG fixation precision, propose methods for increasing the fixation precision, and examine the improvements when the methods are applied to two POG estimation approaches. To achieve these objectives, techniques for high-speed image processing that allow POG sampling rates of over 400 Hz are presented. With these high-speed POG sampling rates, the fixation precision can be improved by filtering while maintaining an acceptable real-time latency. The high-speed sampling and digital filtering techniques developed were applied to two POG estimation techniques, i.e., the highspeed pupil-corneal reflection (HS P-CR) vector method and a 3-D model-based method allowing free head motion. Evaluation on the subjects has shown that when operating at 407 frames per second (fps) with filtering, the fixation precision for the HS P-CR POG estimation method was improved by a factor of 5.8 to 0.035deg (1.6 screen pixels) compared to the unfiltered operation at 30 fps. For the 3-D POG estimation method, the fixation precision was improved by a factor of 11 to 0.050deg (2.3 screen pixels) compared to the unfiltered operation at 30 fps.

Published in:

Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B: Cybernetics, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:38 ,  Issue: 2 )