Skip to Main Content
This paper presents multi-rate output-estimation using an auto-regressive-moving-average with exogenous variable (ARMAX) model for real-time haptic rendering. In medical simulation, physics-based simulation of the organs and tissues including cutting and suturing is necessary for high-fidelity visual and haptic interaction. A deformation model based on a finite-element model or a mass-spring model is frequently used, which incurs heavy computational burden and time delay. Reflective force cannot be computed at 1 kHz because of the heavy computational overhead. This problem is resolved by employing a multi-rate output-estimation using ARMAX model that improves the original version of the multi-rate output-estimation with P-matrix resetting. High-fidelity reflective force is computed from the estimated input-output model at 1 kHz and the performance is evaluated with simulation.