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Based on projections of the International Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS), the continued scaling of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) devices will face severe technical challenges. Among the most critical are power dissipation and device-level variabilities that will make circuit design very difficult. Potential device-level solutions that take advantage of new functional materials, self-assembly processes, low dissipation nanoscale devices, and architectures that aim in sustaining Moore's law beyond the ITRS are discussed in this paper. Two potential paths forward are clear at this point. One path is to continue increasing chip-scale functional throughput by looking at new functional materials at atomic and molecular levels for assembly into new low-power devices with different logic state variables that can better tolerate variabilities. Another distinct approach is to increase chip-scale functionality by exploiting the heterogeneous integration of materials, such as compound semiconductors on silicon as enabled by the unique features in nanoscale epitaxy and self-assembly on a common substrate. This paper will discuss some possible methods forward in maintaining scaled CMOS and going beyond the roadmap.
Date of Publication: Feb. 2008