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An efficient algorithm is presented for the computation of grayscale morphological operations with arbitrary 2D flat structuring elements (S.E.). The required computing time is independent of the image content and of the number of gray levels used. It always outperforms the only existing comparable method, which was proposed in the work by Van Droogenbroeck and Talbot, by a factor between 3.5 and 35.1, depending on the image type and shape of S.E. So far, filtering using multiple S.E.s is always done by performing the operator for each size and shape of the S.E. separately. With our method, filtering with multiple S.E.s can be performed by a single operator for a slightly reduced computational cost per size or shape, which makes this method more suitable for use in granulometries, dilation-erosion scale spaces, and template matching using the hit-or-miss transform. The discussion focuses on erosions and dilations, from which other transformations can be derived.