Skip to Main Content
This paper introduces an extension of the original finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for modeling double-negative media characterized by high-order frequency-dependent permittivity and permeability. The approach basically consists of adding electric and magnetic current densities to Maxwell's curl equations and considering Ohm's law as a constitutive relationship. Current densities are discretized by using a weighted average in time and Ohm's law by applying the Mobius transformation technique. The extended FDTD formulation is validated and its numerical features are carefully examined. More specifically, analytical stability conditions are derived for several types of double-negative media and the numerical dissipation issue is discussed. In addition, the numerical dispersion equation for general high-order double-negative media is given and the order of accuracy of the scheme is studied. Finally, the definition of numerical refractive index is addressed and it is shown that, when the discretization parameters of the problem are not properly chosen, a negative refractive index may become a positive one in the discrete world, thus changing the physics of the problem.