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This paper proposes a controller for uninterruptible power supply inverters based on a particular type of online-trained neural network, which is called the B-spline network (BSN). Due to its linear nature and local weight updating, the BSN controller is more suitable for real-time implementation than conventional multilayer feedforward neural controllers. Based on a frequency-domain stability analysis, a design methodology for determining the two main parameters of the BSN are presented. The model is found to be similar to that of an iterative learning control (ILC) scheme. However, unlike ILC, which requires a complex digital filter design that involves both causal and noncausal parts, the design procedure of the proposed BSN controller is straightforward and simple. Experimental results under various conditions show that the proposed controller can achieve excellent performance, comparable to that of a high-performance ILC scheme developed earlier. The proposed controller is an attractive alternative to both the multilayer feedforward neural controller and iterative learning controller in this and similar applications.