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Melanoma (the 5th and 6th most common cancer in Caucasian males and females, respectively), is the most severe form of skin cancer, which is often fatal if recognized in its advanced stage. Melanoma is the tumor that originates from melanocytes (the cells that make the pigment melanin), and may develop from a nevus (commonly named "mole"). Clinically, it is very difficult to correctly differentiate nevi with atypical features or dysplastic nevi, and nevi of special sites from melanoma. Clearly, new, more powerful, less invasive, time consuming and expensive tools are needed for an early and accurate detection of melanoma. In order to address this need, we propose a development of a new set of tools, namely, carbon-nanotube-based biosensors for the early and accurate detection of melanoma. Once successful, we will modify and apply this new technology to early and accurately detect other types of cancer.