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Mobile ad hoc networks and wireless sensor networks have promised a wide variety of applications. However, they are often deployed in potentially adverse or even hostile environments. Therefore, they cannot be readily deployed without first addressing security challenges. Intrusion detection systems provide a necessary layer of in-depth protection for wired networks. However, relatively little research has been performed about intrusion detection in the areas of mobile ad hoc networks and wireless sensor networks. In this article, first we briefly introduce mobile ad hoc networks and wireless sensor networks and their security concerns. Then, we focus on their intrusion detection capabilities. Specifically, we present the challenge of constructing intrusion detection systems for mobile ad hoc networks and wireless sensor networks, survey the existing intrusion detection techniques, and indicate important future research directions.