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Using mixed-mode annealing to help evaluate the responses of modern bipolar transistors, we compare the damage processes associated with X-ray irradiation-induced and hot carrier-induced damage in SiGe HBTs. Stress and radiation measurements indicate that the by-products of both X-ray irradiation-induced and hot carrier-induced trap reactions are identical. We use calculations to better understand the operative damage mechanisms, and find that a hydrogen reaction-diffusion model can predict the observed characteristics of our measurements. Calculations indicate that the transport of hydrogen molecules inside the emitter-base oxides determines the trap generation and recovery processes.