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Wireless sensor network may be used for real-time traffic monitoring. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a practical wireless traffic information collection node (TICoN). We propose a specific lightweight adaptive signal processing algorithm based on matched filter, namely AEMFA, for traffic monitoring. We provide solutions to embed this signal processing algorithm in resource-limited sensor node, to reduce power consumption. We also propose a traffic volume detection algorithm, namely TVDA, based on AEMFA. Experimental results show that AEMFA algorithm performs well in sensor node. The algorithm is efficient both in traffic volume detection with an accuracy of 90%, and in energy saving up to 80%.