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Test application at reduced power supply voltage (low-voltage testing) or reduced temperature (low-temperature testing) can improve the defect coverage of a test set, particularly of resistive short defects. Using a probabilistic model of two-line nonfeedback short defects, we quantify the coverage impact of low-voltage and low-temperature testing for different voltages and temperatures. Effects of statistical process variations are not considered in the model. When quantifying the coverage increase, we differentiate between defects missed by the test set at nominal conditions and undetectable defects (flaws) detected at non nominal conditions. In our analysis, the performance degradation of the device caused by lower power supply voltage is accounted for. Furthermore, we describe a situation in which defects detected by conventional testing are missed by low-voltage testing and quantify the resulting coverage loss. Experimental results suggest that test quality is improved even if no cost increase is allowed. If multiple test applications are acceptable, a combination of low voltage and low temperature turns out to provide the best coverage of both hard defects and flaws.