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We fabricated photonic crystal structure on GaAs substrate using nanoporous alumina mask. Uniform arrays of nano-sized pores produced in anodic alumina were transferred into GaAs substrate by inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE). The photonic crystal structure, the nanohole array with uniform diameter of 60 nm and interpore distance of 105 nm, was formed on GaAs substrate as replica of the alumina mask. Its photoluminescence (PL) showed enhanced intensity compared with that from GaAs substrate without its structure. The ICP-RIE technique using nanoporous alumina mask can be used as a prospective method in the fabrication of nano-devices for nanotechnology.