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This paper examines two methods - magnet shifting and optimizing the magnet pole arc - for reducing cogging torque in permanent magnet machines. The methods were applied to existing machine designs and their performance was calculated using finite-element analysis (FEA). Prototypes of the machine designs were constructed and experimental results obtained. It is shown that the FEA predicted the cogging torque to be nearly eliminated using the two methods. However, there was some residual cogging in the prototypes due to manufacturing difficulties. In both methods, the back electromotive force was improved by reducing harmonics while preserving the magnitude.