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Truncated Total Least Squares: A New Regularization Method for the Solution of ECG Inverse Problems

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6 Author(s)

The reconstruction of epicardial potentials (EPs) from body surface potentials (BSPs) can be characterized as an ill-posed inverse problem which generally requires a regularized numerical solution. Two kinds of errors/noise: geometric errors and measurement errors exist in the ECG inverse problem and make the solution of such problem more difficulty. In particular, geometric errors will directly affect the calculation of transfer matrix A in the linear system equation AX = B. In this paper, we have applied the truncated total least squares (TTLS) method to reconstruct EPs from BSPs. This method accounts for the noise/errors on both sides of the system equation and treats geometric errors in a new fashion. The algorithm is tested using a realistically shaped heart-lung-torso model with inhomogeneous conductivities. The h-adaptive boundary element method [h-BEM, a BEM mesh adaptation scheme which starts from preset meshes and then refines (adds/removes) grid with fixed order of interpolation function and prescribed numerical accuracy] is used for the forward modeling and the TTLS is applied for inverse solutions and its performance is also compared with conventional regularization approaches such as Tikhonov and truncated single value decomposition (TSVD) with zeroth-, first-, and second-order. The simulation results demonstrate that TTLS can obtain similar results in the situation of measurement noise only but performs better than Tikhonov and TSVD methods where geometric errors are involved, and that the zeroth-order regularization is the optimal choice for the ECG inverse problem. This investigation suggests that TTLS is able to robustly reconstruct EPs from BSPs and is a promising alternative method for the solution of ECG inverse problems.

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Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:55 ,  Issue: 4 )