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Hybrid electric and fuel cell electric vehicles can be generically thought of as being complex systems, the design of which crosses functional boundaries and combines traditional technology disciplines. It can be argued that the complexity associated with such vehicles stems from two main sources; ?? the need to take an overall systems view with respect to the integration and optimisation of multiple different powertrain architectures, control algorithms and subsystem technologies, and ?? the need to integrate new levels of supervisory control, energy management and propulsion control systems with the already highly complex and distributed systems architecture associated with many modern vehicles. This paper presents examples of the ways in which model based design techniques and tools may be employed to reduce the complexity, time, and therefore the risk associated with the development of such vehicle concepts.