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In the longer term, operation of next generation PONs in the 1530-1600 nm window makes possible use of erbium doped fibre amplifiers. This is an active research topic and multi wavelength 10 Gbit/s PONs with reaches of 100 km, and several hundred customers per wavelength seem feasible. Ultimately this would allow a country the size of the UK to serve all its FTTH customers from just 100 major nodes ! Smooth migration to this long reach vision and its continual evolution to further generations of optical access technology are important topics to futureproof network investments. Future architectures and possible evolution paths will be discussed in the presentation.