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Targeted reinnervation is a surgical technique developed to increase the number of myoelectric input sites available to control an upper-limb prosthesis. Because signals from the nerves related to specific movements are used to control those missing degrees-of-freedom, the control of a prosthesis using this procedure is more physiologically appropriate compared to conventional control. This procedure has successfully been performed on three people with a shoulder disarticulation level amputation and three people with a transhumeral level amputation. Performance on timed tests, including the box-and-blocks test and clothespin test, has increased two to six times. Options for new control strategies are discussed.