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This paper presents a design method to develop a high-power superconducting microstrip filter with different linewidth resonators. The linewidth of every resonator is optimized using this method to meet the same maximum current density. Thus, the power-handling capability of the five-pole filter on a limited substrate size can reach a maximum value. The design method is verified by the electromagnetic simulation of the current density distribution. The high-power superconducting filter is designed and fabricated on a 38 mm times 30 mm times 0.505 mm LaAlO3 substrate. The maximum resonator linewidth is 7 mm, and the minimum one is 1.6 mm. The filter has a center frequency of 2006 MHz and a narrow bandwidth of 1.0%. The measured power level is up to 35 dBm at 65 K without an evident change in insertion loss.