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Traffic number recognition is the important and essential content on license plate recognition and traffic sign recognition. A method of traffic number recognition based on the neural network and the invariant moments was proposed in this paper. Firstly, the area of the traffic number was located from the complicated image background and each number was taken by the image segmentation. Secondly, the features of each number were obtained by Hu invariant moments, which are the invariability of the translation, the ratio and the rotation, and have lower computational complexity. Finally, the traffic number was recognized by the BP neural network. Experimental results proved that the proposed method can be used for fast and efficient recognition of the traffic number with high accuracy.