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A Broadband High-Frequency Electrical Impedance Tomography System for Breast Imaging

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3 Author(s)
Halter, R.J. ; Dartmouth Coll., Hanover ; Hartov, A. ; Paulsen, K.D.

Bio-electric impedance signatures arise primarily from differences in cellular morphologies within an organ and can be used to differentiate benign and malignant pathologies, specifically in the breast. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an imaging modality that determines the impedance distribution within tissue and has been used in prior work to map the electrical properties of breast at signal frequencies ranging from a few kHz to 1 MHz. It has been suggested that by extending the frequency range, additional information of clinical significance may be obtained. We have, therefore, developed a new EIT system for breast imaging which covers the frequency range from 10 kHz to 10 MHz. The instrument developed here is a distributed processor tomograph with 64 channels, capable of generating and measuring voltages and currents. Electrical benchmarking has shown the system to have a SNR greater than 94 dB up to 2 MHz, 90 dB up to 7 MHz, and 65 dB at 10 MHz. In addition, the system measures impedances to an accuracy of 99.7% and has channel-to-channel variations of less than 0.05%. Phantom imaging has demonstrated the ability to image across the entire frequency range in both single-and multiplane configurations. Further, 96 women have participated safely in breast exams with the system and the associated conductivity spectra obtained from 3-D image reconstructions range from 0.0237 S/m at 10 kHz to 0.2174 S/m at 10 MHz. These findings are consistent with impedance values reported in the literature.

Published in:

Biomedical Engineering, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:55 ,  Issue: 2 )

Date of Publication:

Feb. 2008

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