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Flooding is a fundamental file search operation in unstructured peer-to-peer (P2P) file sharing systems, in which a peer starts the file search procedure by broadcasting a query to its neighbors, who continue to propagate it to their neighbors. This procedure repeats until a time-to-live (TTL) counter is decremented to 0. Flooding can seriously limit system scalability, because the number of redundant query messages grows exponentially during the message propagation. Our study shows that more than 70 percent of the generated messages are redundant in a flooding with a TTL of 7 in a moderately connected Gnutella network. Existing efforts to address this issue have been focused on limiting the use of the flooding operation. We propose a new flooding scheme, called LightFlood, with the objective of minimizing the number of redundant messages and retaining a similar message-propagating scope as that of the standard flooding. In the scheme, each peer keeps track of the connectivities of every immediate and next indirect neighbor peers, which can be acquired locally. LightFlood identifies the neighbor with the highest connectivity and uses the link to that neighbor to form a suboverlay within the existing P2P overlay. In LightFlood, flooding is divided into two stages. The first stage is a standard flooding with a limited number of TTL hops, where a message can spread to a sufficiently large scope with a small number of redundant messages. In the second stage, message propagating is only conducted along the suboverlay, significantly reducing the number of redundant messages. Our analysis and simulation experiments show that the LightFlood scheme provides a low-overhead broadcast facility that can be effectively used in P2P search. For example, compared with standard flooding with seven TTL hops, we show that LightFlood with an additional two to three hops can reduce up to 69 percent of the flooding messages and retain the same flooding scope. We believe that LightFlood ca- - n be widely used as a core mechanism for efficient message broadcasting in P2P systems due to its near-optimal performance.
Parallel and Distributed Systems, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:19 , Issue: 5 )
Date of Publication: May 2008