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As a solution to the high speed, ultralow power, and extremely compact ADC circuit block, a complementary single-electron transistor (SET)/CMOS hybrid amplifier-based analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is proposed. It is implemented with a physics-based SPICE model including nonideal effects in real Si-based SETs such as the tunnel barrier lowering effect, parasitic MOSFETs operation, and the phase shift of Coulomb oscillation by the bias of a gate other than a main control gate. Its core scheme is the combination of both the amplification of SET current by MOSFETs and the suppression of a Coulomb blockade oscillation valley current by the differential amplification. In addition, the transient operation of SET/CMOS hybrid circuit-based ADCs fully accounting for nonideal effects of real SETs is successfully demonstrated for the first time. Compared with the previous SET-based ADCs, our ADC makes features of the immunity to nonideal effects, large voltage swing of the output signal, and high load drivability.