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Watermarking Relational Databases Using Optimization-Based Techniques

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3 Author(s)
Shehab, M. ; Univ. of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte ; Bertino, E. ; Ghafoor, A.

Proving ownership rights on outsourced relational databases is a crucial issue in today's internet-based application environments and in many content distribution applications. In this paper, we present a mechanism for proof of ownership based on the secure embedding of a robust imperceptible watermark in relational data. We formulate the watermarking of relational databases as a constrained optimization problem and discuss efficient techniques to solve the optimization problem and to handle the constraints. Our watermarking technique is resilient to watermark synchronization errors because it uses a partitioning approach that does not require marker tuples. Our approach overcomes a major weakness in previously proposed watermarking techniques. Watermark decoding is based on a threshold-based technique characterized by an optimal threshold that minimizes the probability of decoding errors. We implemented a proof of concept implementation of our watermarking technique and showed by experimental results that our technique is resilient to tuple deletion, alteration, and insertion attacks.

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Knowledge and Data Engineering, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:20 ,  Issue: 1 )