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In this paper, we propose a resynthesis framework, called COunterexample-guided REsynthesis (CoRe), that automatically corrects errors in digital designs. The framework is based on a simulation-based abstraction technique and performs an error correction through two innovative circuit resynthesis solutions: distinguishing-power search and goal-directed search, which modify the functionality of circuits' internal nodes to match the correct behavior. In addition, we propose a compact encoding of resynthesis information, called the Pairs of Bits to be Distinguished, which is a key enabler for our resynthesis techniques. Compared with previous solutions, CoRe is more powerful for the following reasons: (1) It can fix a broader range of error types because it is not bounded by specific error models; (2) it derives the correct functionality from simulation vectors without requiring golden netlists; and (3) it can be applied with a broad range of verification flows, including formal and simulation-based flows.