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A device realizing the simultaneous measure of the central body temperature (Tc), the superficial one (Ts) and their difference (Dt), was proposed for permanent energetic balance evaluation in humans. A program was elaborated to command the intravenous delivery of insulin by a pump depending on the value and trends of Dt. The use of this device for monitoring of decompensated diabetic patients allowed their easier stabilization. In critically ill patients (post transplantation, myocardium infarction) it had a diagnostic and prognostic value, and was helpful for optimization of conventional and insulin therapy.