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One-dimensional high-range-resolution (HRR) and two-dimensional range-Doppler-imaging (RDI) radar represent possible sensor technologies where template-based techniques can be applied to perform combat identification (CID). The majority of the research reported in these areas consists of empirical studies. This article provides a theoretical basis for understanding some of the fundamental trade-offs associated with these CID techniques, such as the following: What are the relative advantages of RDI over HRR radar or of finer versus coarser resolution in the HRR process? What is the relative advantage of coherent over noncoherent processing? How do target correlations, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and target scintillation affect the ability to identify targets? Because confusion matrices are often used to characterize the performance of CID systems, we provide analytical methods for calculating the entries in confusion matrices as a function of the issues cited above. These formulations provide analytical bases to guide system trade-off decisions. The organization of this paper is as follows. We begin with a short overview of HRR and RDI and then explore a number of ways to process the associated target templates that range from an ideal, theoretical approach to an approach that would be more feasible to implement within current-day radars. We first develop analytic template-based methodologies for constructing confusion matrix entries for nonscintillating targets for both coherent and noncoherent processing assumptions. The confusion matrix entries in these cases are conditional probabilities obtained from a simple rule: find the probability that among m (in general, correlated) random variables, each associated with a possible target, that any one is the largest. For the noncoherent case, the successful application of this rule requires the target template values to explicitly include the effects of thermal noise (noise-adjusted templates). We conclude by showing h- - ow to calculate theoretically optimum results (e.g., using maximum likelihood techniques) for noncoherent processing of targets that exhibit uncorrelated Swerling 1 scintillation in ail resolution bins as a function of the SNR. This approach allows us to include overall target intensity (e.g., total radar cross section (RCS)) as a further factor in the target decision process.