By Topic

A Fine Resolution TDC Architecture for Next Generation PET Imaging

Sign In

Cookies must be enabled to login.After enabling cookies , please use refresh or reload or ctrl+f5 on the browser for the login options.

Formats Non-Member Member
$31 $13
Learn how you can qualify for the best price for this item!
Become an IEEE Member or Subscribe to
IEEE Xplore for exclusive pricing!
close button

puzzle piece

IEEE membership options for an individual and IEEE Xplore subscriptions for an organization offer the most affordable access to essential journal articles, conference papers, standards, eBooks, and eLearning courses.

Learn more about:

IEEE membership

IEEE Xplore subscriptions

2 Author(s)
Yousif, A.S. ; Calgary Univ., Calfary ; Haslett, J.W.

A fine resolution and process scalable CMOS time-to-digital converter (TDC) architecture is presented. A 6-bit fine resolution TDC design using the new architecture is evaluated for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging application. The TDC architecture uses a hierarchical delay processing structure to achieve single cycle latency and high speed of operation. The fine resolution converter, realized in 130 nm CMOS, is designed to operate over a reference clock frequency of 500 MHz but can be scaled to multi GHz operation through time interleaving. Without external calibration, the TDC is used as a 5-bit fine resolution converter with 4.65 ENOB (effective number of bits). Under this condition, the 6-bit TDC has an INL (integral non-linearity) measurement of less than 1.45 LSB and a DNL (differential non-linearity) measurement of less than 1.25 LSB. With external calibration, a reduction of more than 50% in INL/DNL nonlinearities is demonstrated improving the ENOB to 5.5 bits, pushing the TDC to a 6-bit fine resolution operation. The TDC has a 31 ps timing resolution and power consumption of less than 1 mW. The design is believed to be the fastest and the lowest power consuming fine resolution TDC in the literature.

Published in:

Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:54 ,  Issue: 5 )