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In this paper, a novel prime code, which is hereby referred to as ldquodouble-padded modified prime code,rdquo is introduced and employed in a synchronous optical code division multiple access for both spreading and despreading operations. We have analyzed this system signal-to-noise-ratio penalty as a function of the number of simultaneous users that is accommodated to maintain an appropriate value of the bit-error rate. In the analysis, the coherent binary-phase-shift-keying modulation is used, and at the receiver, signals are heterodyne detected and processed. In addition, in the analysis, both the receiver noise and multiple-access interference are investigated.