Skip to Main Content
In the future, it will become more common for humans to team up with robotic systems to perform tasks that humans cannot realistically accomplish alone. Even for autonomous and semiautonomous systems, teleoperation will be an important default mode. However, teleoperation can be a challenging task because the operator is remotely located. As a result, the operator's situation awareness of the remote environment can be compromised and the mission effectiveness can suffer. This paper presents a detailed examination of more than 150 papers covering human performance issues and suggested mitigation solutions. The paper summarizes the performance decrements caused by video images bandwidth, time lags, frame rates, lack of proprioception, frame of reference, two-dimensional views, attention switches, and motion effects. Suggested solutions and their limitations include stereoscopic displays, synthetic overlay, multimodal interfaces, and various predicative and decision support systems.