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Dielectric barrier discharge plasma has been known to inactivate many different microorganisms on surfaces when treatment times are on the order of seconds or minutes in duration. In this paper, a unique plasma air cleaning facility was created which combines a dielectric barrier grating discharge (DBGD) with a filterless laboratory-scale ventilation system and is used to treat concentrated bacterial bioaerosol in a moving air stream at air flow rates of 25 L/s. Results indicate that plasma treatment times on the order of milliseconds corresponding to one pass through the DBGD device can achieve 1.5-log reduction in culturable E. coli immediately after contact with plasma and 5-log reduction totally following in the minutes after the plasma treatment. A numerical characterization study was performed to help predict and understand the mechanism of bacteria inactivation in the DBD plasma from a variety of plasma factors.