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Cooperative innovation is one of the important drive factors of supply chain (SC), and knowledge sharing is the foundation of the cooperative innovation of SC enterprises. Knowledge sharing among nodal enterprises can produce greater profits and realize cooperative effect. The paper analyzes the effect of knowledge sharing on the cooperative innovation performance, expressed as profit-making level, through the Stackelberg game model. The paper finds that improvement of the knowledge sharing degree (KSD) will obviously improve profit-making level of nodal enterprises and the whole SC. Finally, the paper proposes two approaches, including establishment of SC system based on knowledge sharing and construction of knowledge sharing management system based on credit, to improve knowledge sharing degree and enhance cooperation performance.