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T-ray wavelengths are long enough to pass through dry, nonpolar objects opaque at visible wavelengths, but short enough to be manipulated by optical components to form an image. Sensing in this band potentially provides advantages in a number of areas of interest to security and defense such as screening of personnel for hidden objects and the retection of chemical and biological agents. Several private companies are developing smaller, reliable cheaper systems allowing for commercialization and this motivates us to review a number of promising applications within this paper. While there are a number of challenges to be overcome there is little doubt that T-ray technology will play a significant role in the near future for advancement of security, public health, and defense.