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A Bismuth Germanate-Avalanche Photodiode Module Designed for Use in High Resolution Positron Emission Tomography

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4 Author(s)
Lightstone, A.W. ; RCA Inc., Box 1200, New Products Divsion Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, Québec, Canada H9X 3L3 ; McIntyre, R.J. ; Lecomte, R. ; Schmitt, D.

A light-tight, hermetically sealed module for use in high resolution positron emission tomography systems is described. The module has external dimensions 3.8×13.2×33 mm and contains two 3×5×20 Bismuth Germanate (BGO) scintillators, each with its own 3×3 mm silicon avalanche photodiode. When stacked, the vertical packing fraction is 80%. As measured with a 137Cs (662 keV) source, the typical energy resolution is 20% at 22°C, reducing to 16% at 0°C. The single detector time resolution for the 22Na gamma at 511 keV is typically less 20 ns at 22°C, reducing to less than 15 ns at 0°C. Further cooling does not improve the performance since the emission time of light from BGO increases at lower temperature. Preliminary results with Gadolinium Orthosilicate show similar energy resolution, better timing resolution (under 10 ns), but as is known, a slightly poorer photofraction and stopping power.

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Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:33 ,  Issue: 1 )