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The importance of characterizing aerosol properties in evaluating the behavior and potential hazards of radioactive aerosols is emphasized. The instruments and techniques for studying the properties of radioactive aerosols including special properties such as chemical form, solubility, and state of electrostatic charge are discussed. The uses of electrostatic and thermal precipitators for electron-microscopic observations and measurements, and of various aerodynamic samplers such as impactors, centripeters, cyclones, and aerosol centrifuges for study of size distribution, particle density and shape factors, and relative specific activity are reviewed. The conventional terminology for describing particle size and size distributions is described with emphasis on the relationships to the factors associated with the potential hazards of inhaling radioactive aerosols.