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Selected transistors and diodes have been irradiated by various types and energies of dislocating radiation. Irradiation by protons of 10-Mev, neutrons of a reactor spectrum, electrons of 5, 10, and 25-Mev, gamma rays from cobalt-60, and bremsstrahlung from stopping of 5-Mev electrons are discussed. Passive and dynamic monitoring of permanent radiation damage was performed for exposures ranging from "threshold" to failure doses, utilizing various exposure rates. Changes in transistor forward current gain and changes in diode lifetime are presented in terms of integrated "particle" flux. From such analysis, the feasibility of ascribing an equivalence of radiation particles for aermanent damage in transistors and diodes has been successfully shown. Comparative damage curves, correlations of operational degradation with defect densities, and preliminary equivalences are presented.
Date of Publication: Nov. 1963