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Atmospheric sounding systems have become one of the most important meteorological tools to both the civilian and military population. The Meteorological Data Sounding System (MDSS), described in the manuscript, is the newest type and provides accuracies, capabilities, and features not available in any of the atmospheric sounding systems currently in use. The MDSS is being designed for the Army in support of artillery fire. The purpose of the MDSS system is to provide the capability to artillery sections for obtaining a first round hit, even in areas obscured from observers, by the use of the most reliable, fresh, and comprehensive meteorological data. These data are obtained through the unique technique of using an S-band frequency for meteorological and angular data acquisition and an X-band frequency for ranging on an airborne target. The target is part of the radiosonde-flight train. All the meteorological and geometric data are fed to a radiosonde data processor which converts all the parameters into a common, machine language form for computer processing. In addition to the system's excellent mobility and quick reaction capabilities, it is capable of obtaining sounding data and processing it at an extremely high rate. The final output data is produced in the form of seven types of meteorological messages which are used for decision making by field commanders and missile test ranges.