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Marking systems are frequent subjects of educational controversy because the process is difficult, because different educational philosophies call for different marking systems, and because the task is sometimes disagreeable. Claims that marks diminish the effectiveness of the educational system do not seem to be generally valid, and properly assigned marks do measure the degree of attainment of the basic objectives of education. Measurements and reports of achievement are essential in education and no better means than marks seems likely to appear. In this paper the basic purposes of marks and their effects on student attitude and motivation are discussed. Two basic systems of marking, relative and absolute, are compared, and means of improving marking through institutional standardization are discussed. Pass-fail grading and other alternatives to conventional marking systems are evaluated. Weighting of various measures of achievement in assigning marks is discussed, and detailed computational procedures for assigning marks are developed.