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Programmed instruction is developed in a manner analogous to an engineering design problem, hence engineers can apply many of their skills to the design of such instructional materials. Like the engineer, the programmer first sets up his objectives and specifications before beginning to lay out his detailed design. The design work is followed by prototype testing and revision and then by field testing before production. The power of the program is based on the student's active response to a carefully designed sequence of elements. The combination of detailed specification of requirements, active response, and objective testing will produce reliable results.