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We demonstrate near-infrared waveguide photodetectors using Ge-SiGe quantum wells epitaxially grown on a silicon substrate. The diodes exhibit a low dark current of 17.9 mA/cm2 at 5-V reverse bias. The photodetectors are designed to work optimally at 1480 nm, where the external responsivity is 170 mA/W, which is mainly limited by the fiber-to-waveguide coupling loss. The 1480-nm wavelength matches the optimum wavelength for quantum-well electroabsorption modulators built on the same epitaxy, but these photodetectors also exhibit performance comparable to the demonstrated Ge-based detectors at longer wavelengths. At 1530 nm, we see open eye diagrams at 2.5-Gb/s operation and the external responsivity is as high as 66 mA/W. The technology is potentially integrable with the standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process and offers an efficient solution for on-chip optical interconnects.