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Experiments designed to validate a two-dimensional theoretical model of a gas-tungsten arc welding (GTAW) arc are described. The predicted temperature distributions agree well with the measured values in the body of the arc. Agreement between theory and experiment near the electrodes has been impoved by the new boundary conditions in the theory. Experimental determinations of the effects of gas flow rate, electrode stick-out distance, and nozzle diameter on the temperature of GTAW arcs are discussed. A theoretical investigation of an addition of 0.1-percent cerium to an argon arc shows that enhanced low-temperature conductivity and extra radiative cooling due to cerium can lead to marked changes in arc properties.