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In this paper, single-mode cavity theory relating cavity Q, stored energy, and relaxation time is applied to mode-stirred chamber (MSC) operation. It is shown that a calibration factor for average power density, defined in terms of stored energy density, can be determined solely from a relaxation time measurement, for which a suitable measurement technique is also shown. A possible definition of minimum operating frequency for an MSC is also defined in terms of parameters that can easily be measured during normal chamber operation. Finally, an attempt is made to show how the derived and measured results apply to MSC operation and design.