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Near-Zero Bias Arrays of Josephson Tunnel Junctions Providing Standard Voltages up to 1 V

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3 Author(s)

Josephson voltage standards utilize microwave-induced constant voltage steps occurring due to the ac Josephson effect. Existing standards can be considerably simplified and their accuracy improved by using a large number of series-connected Josephson tunnel junctions which are operated in the zero current step mode. For this purpose superconducting millimeter wave integrated circuits have been designed, fabricated, and tested. The circuits consist of a broadband taper between the rectangular waveguide and the planar structure, the Josephson junction series, a well-matched load, and dc pads. Circuits with various numbers of junctions have been fabricated by photo-lithographic techniques and tested at 4.2 K in liquid helium. The version with 1474 junctions produced voltages up to 1.2 V when operated at 90 GHz.

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Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:IM-34 ,  Issue: 2 )