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Microwave Standards and Measurements, A Progress Review 1960 to 1963

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Rather than a comprehensive survey of the field, highlights of the progress in microwave standards and measurement methods are given. Power, attenuation, impedance or reflection coefficient, noise, phase shift, and field strength are covered. Microwave frequencies are assumed to start at 1 Gc and extend upwards, including coherent electromagnetic energy in the spectrum of visible light, approximately 400-800 Tc. A discussion of the intercomparisons of power standards of different nations is followed by a report on newly developed power measuring devices and techniques. Some methods of measuring the power of lasers are given. The present status of attenuation measurements and standards is indicated, giving ranges and accuracies of calibrations at the National Bureau of Standards, Boulder, Colo. New types of standards for millimeter and submillimeter waves and for attenuation of laser beams are mentioned. Impedance standards and measuring techniques are discussed, as well as 2-port measurements and the development of greatly improved coaxial connectors. The recent development of phase shift standards and measurement techniques in the United States is summarized. The essential lack of microwave field strength standards is noted and small progress is reported.

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IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement  (Volume:12 ,  Issue: 3 )