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The notion of "complex problems" is introduced with the help of a production planning problem in a Finnish pharmaceutical industry. It is demonstrated that a complex management problem may be based on two key elementsÂ¿the multigoal and the aggregation/disaggregation problems. Two approaches to tackling complex problems are introduced: the first is to determine composite optimal solutions by linking mathematical programming (MP) models, and the second is to experiment with solutions from MP models in the framework of a systems-simulating model. The properties of these two approaches are outlined and discussed, and their applicability for tackling complex problems is assessed.